Interview mit Stefan Grosjean, CEO und Mitgründer von Smappee

Emy Elleboog

Smappee – Stefan Grosjean

Technewable im Gespräch mit Stefan Grosjean – Smappee Mitgründer und CEO

Stefan Grosjean, Mitbegründer von Smappee über das #Energiesystem der Zukunft, die Digitalisierung der Energiewirtschaft, starre Energienetze, Versäumnisse in der Energiebranche, bestehende Herausforderungen für die Energiewende, die künftige Rolle des Verbrauchers, Schlüsseltechnologien, Innovationen und neue Geschäftsmodelle im Energiesektor, Entwicklungen für die Zukunft und seine Vision von einem zukünftigen Energiesystem.

 

Technewable: Was verstehen Sie unter Digitalisierung der Energiewirtschaft? Was sind zentrale Treiber und wo bestehen Herausforderungen?

Stefan Grosjean: Beim Thema Digitalisierung lohnt sich ein Blick auf die Telekommunikationsindustrie. In den letzten zehn bis zwanzig Jahren hat diese Branche eine einzigartige Entwicklung durchgemacht – denken wir allein an die Verbreitung des Internets. Die Telekommunikationsindustrie ist heute ein komplett digitales, drahtloses Netzwerk.

Genau so hätte sich die Energiewirtschaft entwickeln müssen, aber sie hinkt ihrer Zeit hinterher. Das System ist veraltet, und das starre Energienetz hält den steigenden Anforderungen, die mit der Energiewende einhergehen, nicht stand. Im Zuge der Integration von erneuerbaren Energien ist die Digitalisierung der Energiewirtschaft aber unerlässlich.

Der Strombedarf wird heute immer mehr durch kleine, lokale Photovoltaik- und auch Windanlagen gedeckt. Der Ausgleich von Produktion und Nachfrage erfolgt dabei aber nicht vollständig vor Ort. Ein entscheidender Teil des Strombedarfs wird immer überregional ausgeglichen, was teilweise zu unnötigen Stromtransporten und Energieverlust führt. Die Digitalisierung kann dazu beitragen, das System effektiver und effizienter zu gestalten – hier herrscht dringender Nachholbedarf!

Welche Rolle spielt der Verbraucher im Energiesystem der Zukunft?

Stefan Grosjean: Der Verbraucher wird in Zukunft eine noch wichtigere Rolle im Energiesystem einnehmen. Mit dem Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien werden aus ehemals reinen Stromverbrauchern zeitgleich Stromerzeuger. Denn unsere Häuser werden bald schon als dezentrale Energiekraftwerke fungieren. Dort wird nicht nur Energie verbraucht, sondern auch produziert und gespeichert. Der Konsument wird zum „Prosumer“.

Im Energiesystem der Zukunft lernen die Prosumer vor allem, die Energie dann zu nutzen, wenn sie von den eigenen Solar- oder Windanlagen produziert wird. Schon jetzt demotiviert die niedrige Einspeisevergütung von circa 6 Cent/kWh die privaten Erzeuger ihre eigenproduzierte Energie ins Netz einzuspeisen. Und dies ist auch gut so, denn die Komplexität des Systems nimmt zu, wenn die Energie nicht nur zentral von Kraftwerken sondern auch dezentral in unseren Häusern produziert wird.

Und selbst wenn es möglich ist, Energie in großen Batteriesystemen speichern zu können, ist es dennoch besser die Energie direkt vor Ort zu nutzen. Die Infrastrukturkosten für Transport und Speicherung sind leider erheblich. Monitore wie Smappee dienen in dieser komplexen Struktur als „Lotsen“. Sie überwachen die eigene Stromproduktion und weisen  Haushaltsgeräte wie Kühlschränke oder Wärmepumpen zum Beispiel an, immer dann mehr Energie zu verwenden, wenn die Solaranlage viel Strom produziert.

Wie verändern sich die Geschäftsmodelle in einer digitalen Energiewirtschaft und welche Chancen bestehen für neue Unternehmen?

Stefan Grosjean: Die gerade beschriebene Entwicklung darf nicht alleine auf dem Rücken der Konsumenten ausgetragen werden. In Zukunft benötigen wir daher ein zentrales System, das die Stromproduktion sowie den -verbrauch national reguliert und in Einklang bringt.

Das intelligente Stromnetz der Zukunft wird Stromspitzen vermeiden und Strom aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen wie Windkraft und Solarenergie in die Stromversorgung integrieren. Wenn viel Strom aus Sonnen- oder Windenergie eingespeist wird, dann sollen in Privathaushalten beispielsweise Waschmaschinen oder Trockner betrieben werden. Entscheidend ist dabei die Kommunikation zwischen Geräten und Akteuren auf allen Ebenen. Ähnlich wie in anderen Branchen wird also die Bedeutung von Anwendungen auf IoT-Basis ansteigen – das bietet gerade jungen Playern viel Raum für Innovationen.

Welche Schlüsseltechnologien werden genutzt und wie schätzen Sie deren Reifegrad ein?

Stefan Grosjean: Im Grunde genommen ist die Technologie bereits vorhanden und reif genug. Es gibt Energiemonitore wie Smappee sowie smarte Haushaltsgeräte wie intelligente Kühlschränke. Jedoch kommunizieren all diese Geräte noch nicht gemeinsam auf einer Ebene. Dafür gibt es auch noch keine herstellerübergreifenden Standards. Es wird noch etwa zehn bis fünfzehn Jahre dauern bis alle Konsumenten mit Haushaltsgeräten ausgestattet sind, die über modernste Technik verfügen und IoT-basiert miteinander kommunizieren können.

Welche Rolle spielen Energiekontrollsysteme im künftigen Energiesystem und wie funktionieren diese?

Stefan Grosjean: Smarte Energiemonitore und -kontrollsysteme bieten einen zuvor nie dagewesenen Einblick in Stromverbrauchs- und Erzeugungsdaten. Und damit spielen sie eine entscheidende Rolle im Energiesystem der Zukunft. Eine große Herausforderung der Energiewende ist die Volatilität dezentraler Erzeuger. Für die Kontrolle dieser Volatilität und ein effizientes Ressourcenmanagement sind Echtzeitinformationen unerlässlich, denn sie bilden die Basis eines intelligenten und datengetriebenen Energienetzes.

Intelligente Monitore wie Smappee kontrollieren nicht nur die Stromproduktion, sie weisen Geräte an, Strom zu verbrauchen, wenn gerade viel Energie produziert wird. Beispielsweise schalten sie die Wärmepumpe automatisch dann an, wenn die Sonnenkollektoren viel Strom produzieren. Gleichzeitig steuern sie auch den Verbrauch, wenn gerade wenig Energie zur Verfügung steht. So wird das Elektroauto zum Beispiel nicht in den Abendstunden geladen, wenn bereits Herd, Backofen und die Küchenmaschine im Einsatz sind.

Wie gestaltet sich der Markt für Energiekontrollsysteme? Welche Faktoren beeinflussen ihn?

Stefan Grosjean: Digitale Lösungen wie die Smappee Monitore, mit denen der eigene Strom-, Gas- und auch Wasserverbrauch gemessen und gesteuert werden kann, sind auf dem Vormarsch. Immer mehr Privatpersonen und Unternehmen schätzen die transparenten Informationen zu Verbrauch und Kosten. Zudem haben immer mehr Verbraucher eine eigene Solar- oder Windanlage und nutzen Energiekontrollsysteme, um die eigene Stromproduktion zu überwachen. Durch das steigende Umweltbewusstsein vieler Verbraucher und die fortschreitende Digitalisierung der gesamten Wirtschaft wird sich der Markt für smarte Energiemonitore in den nächsten Jahren stark entwickeln.

Wie stellen Sie sich das Energiesystem der Zukunft vor? Was ist Ihre Vision?

Stefan Grosjean: In einer idealen Welt gäbe es ein regeneratives Energieerzeugungssystem, was sich über den gesamten Globus erstreckt und von dem alle Länder profitieren könnten. Einzelne Länder werden ihren Energiehunger kaum ausschließlich über Wind- und Solarenergie stillen können. Dazu leben wir hier in einer Region, deren Wetter einfach zu unbeständig ist.

In der Theorie könnte aber die Energie, die allein an einem Tag von der Sonne ausgeht, die Welt ein Jahr lang versorgen – wir sind in der Energieerzeugung nur noch nicht produktiv genug. Ich denke also an riesige Solarparks in heißeren Regionen der Erde oder ausgedehnte Windparks an den Küsten. Massive Stromverbindungen zwischen Nord und Süd sowie Ost und West, würden uns konstant mit Energie versorgen.

Aus geopolitischen Gründen würde so ein System weltumspannend wohl nicht realisiert werden, aber auf einzelnen Kontinenten ist es umsetzbar. Innerhalb von Europa könnten wir den Austausch von Elektrizität fördern, indem wir zum Beispiel überschüssigen Strom in norwegische Pumpspeicherkraftwerke leiten. Damit wäre ein lokaler, natürlicher Speicher geschaffen. Meine Vision ist es, dass wir in Zukunft unbegrenzt viel Energie nutzen können – natürlich aus erneuerbarer Erzeugung und ohne CO2-Ausstoß.

Über Smappee

Smappee ist eine Lösung für den Endverbraucher. Der Name Smappee steht sowohl für das Produkt wie auch für das Unternehmen, welches 2012 gegründet wurde. Smappee entwickelt innovative  Lösungen zur Unterstützung eines nachhaltigen Energieverbrauchs. Mit Smappee erhalten Anwender  bedienungsfreundliche Tools zur Überprüfung ihres Energieverbrauchs in Echtzeit. Das Tool ermöglicht Endverbrauchern, Kostentreiber im Haushalt zu identifizieren und darauf zu reagieren, um so Energie und Kosten einzusparen sowie Umwelt und Klima zu entlasten.

Stefan Grosjean brengt energieverbruik in kaart op Canvas, De Afspraak. 27 November 2015

Over twee dagen gaat de klimaattop in Parijs van start en nog altijd heeft België geen klimaatakkoord. Een blaam voor onze overheid. Maar is het niet wat gemakkelijk om alles af te schuiven op de overheid? Ook zonder maatregelen van de overheid, kunnen bedrijven en particulieren al heel veel zelf doen. Dat zegt Stefan Grosjean, CEO van Smappee, een bedrijf dat energieverbruik in kaart brengt.

Screen Shot 2015-11-28 at 14.17.12Screen Shot 2015-11-28 at 14.16.30

http://www.canvas.be/video/de-afspraak/najaar-2015/vrijdag-27-november-2015/stefan-grosjean-energieverbruik#

How the Internet of Things is changing residential energy.

Smappee 3

By Stefan Grosjean

Mobile technology has significantly changed the way people approach daily tasks – and while it began with the smartphone, the trend has now made its way into our homes. While the process is already in motion now, in 10 years it will be ubiquitous.

In fact, by 2022, the average home is expected to have 500 smart devices. Say goodbye to the laborious process of pressing coffee, and say hello to waking up to a machine-made cup that started brewing automatically 10 minutes before your alarm rang, because it was synced with your phone. That will be the new normal.

Of course, the Internet of Things (IoT) will make our lives easier – but what’s more exciting is its potential to significantly change the way we consume energy. In just one decade or less, consumers will have more control over their own energy consumption than ever before. Instead of sitting on the sidelines, the Internet of Things revolution will empower everyday people with actionable insights to help them lead more sustainable lives. Here are three predictions on how IoT will continue to change the energy space by 2025.

The end of light switches

Within 10 years, light switches will be archaic objects. Your devices will be able to automatically sense when you’re home – and how you move through the home – using a beacon in your smartphone (such as iBeacon, which was activated in iOS 7). This technology works by emitting a low-energy Bluetooth signal, which devices can detect and then use to estimate proximity. While retail stores have already begun implementing this (for example, to track how close you are to a check-out counter), we expect that the residential sector will account for the next big wave of adoption. In fact, Bluetooth receivers in your home will soon be able to interact with each other to determine your exact location through triangulation. The benefit to users? Less manual activity and smarter, more intuitive automation.

In addition to living more conveniently, we’ll also see a disruption of certain industries as a result of this shift. For example, because there will no longer be a need to drill holes in the walls to install switches, electricians will become consultants rather than installers, helping people program their homes wirelessly.

Clean, distributed energy on the rise

Climate change science is now indisputable, and we need to begin acting now to combat the human-produced effects. The good news? We’re already seeing positive signs.

Energy is becoming more distributed: It is moving from giant coal-powered burners to localized sources, like small-scale solar and wind facilities. According to the EPA, energy-generating companies expect to add more than 20 gigawatts of capacity to the power grid this year alone. This is dominated by wind (9.8 GW), natural gas (6.3 GW) and solar (2.2 GW), which combine to make up 91 percent of the total additions. Furthermore, more households are installing solar panels, as prices for rooftop photovoltaic systems have dropped 29 percent from 2010 to 2013.

The challenge? We can’t program the sun or the wind based on our energy needs, which is why storage is becoming critically important. We need to understand how to store excess power when we have it, so that we avoid disasters when we don’t.

By 2025, more and more people will adopt residential energy-monitoring devices like Smappee. In fact, early adopters are already learning how to optimize their own production and consumption, becoming micromanagers of their own grids. By bringing together different measurements – from weather patterns to local energy prices – devices like Smappee can tell users when energy will be the cheapest or most expensive, delivering a truly connected service. In the future, as the need to micromanage resources becomes even more critical, this type of technology will move to the mainstream.

A shift in power – from utilities to consumers

Today, energy intelligence is largely controlled by utilities. In the U.S. alone, 45 millionresidential smart meters have been installed as of July 2013 – but they are designed primarily to provide data for utilities, helping them restore power after natural disasters or manage peak demand times. These “smart” meters are not smart enough to help users make sustainable choices. They lack true disaggregation, typically providing a backward-looking monthly snapshot.

As the smart home revolution marches on, more people will use devices that can detect energy consumption in real-time, down to the appliance level – independent of any utility. These devices use advanced analytics to help consumers detect hidden energy guzzlers, creating personalized recommendations for users based on data gathered from their own homes. For example, Smappee can analyze your refrigerator’s efficiency and then prompt you to upgrade to a model that will reduce your overall energy use.

Utilities will still be needed in the future, of course, but consumer-centric smart home devices can give people greater insights into how they are using energy, and how they can manage it.

With these trends in mind, I’m optimistic about technology’s potential to tackle some of tomorrow’s largest sustainability challenges. But in order to us to truly control our aggregate energy use, every individual needs to act now. We all need to play a role by taking control of our own consumption. Are you ready to take part?

Image credit: Smappee

Stefan Grosjean is the CEO and founder of Smappee, a global energy management solution. Before Smappee, Stefan established Energy ICT, a Belgium-based company that uses smart meters to deliver insights to businesses. He transformed this startup into an energy-solutions world leader for industrial and commercial enterprises and government agencies. With Smappee, Stefan aims to introduce an easy-to-use product that benefits consumers – and ultimately the planet.

Devices such as Smappee allow users to track and manage their own energy consumption, independent of any utility.

When to replace lights?

Lighting accounts for 7 per cent of a typical household’s energy bill.

Cutting your lighting bill is one of the easiest ways to save energy and money. Houses typically use a mixture of standard light fittings and downlighters or spotlight fittings. Energy efficient bulbs are available for both types of fittings.

Changing which bulbs you use and how you use them will instantly save your home energy and money.

Not sure if I should replace those lights? Can Smappee help?

First identify the Appliance, the lights (see other articles to find your appliance).  Once the appliance is identified and you allowed Smappee to collect some usage data for a few weeks, you’ll have reliable data and statistics on that lights energy consumption.

In my case, I looked at TL lights in our dressing room. 

The DNA of this Light appliance shows me this:

This light is ON for a total of 10 days per year (2,7% of the time).  Turns on with a timer when presence is detected in the dressing room!  On average 6 minutes 46 seconds. 

That’s good, we don’t let the lights ON when no one is present.  The power is 101W and is correct ( 2 fluorescent tubes of 51W each).  This light will consume 24 kWh per year at a cost of 6,10 EUR per year. 

 Can I replace the light with more efficient lights with this budget of 6,10 EUR?!

No, and I should not as the light is only used 2,7% of the time, thanks to the presence sensor and the timer.  This light is also very efficient and I found out the TL tubes have an A label according to EEL (European Efficiency Label) standard. 

 

Changing how we use our lights by implementing control mechanisms and being conscious of our behavioural habits can save money and energy.

Here are a few easy things to help you start saving:

  • Always turn lights out when leaving a room regardless of how short a period it is for
  • Be conscious of how many lights you have on and whether they all need to be in use
  • Arrange light switches so that its convenient to turn them off i.e. place switches at top and bottom of stairs, each end of a hallway and each door to a room
  • Use a sensor and timer on external lights so they are only in use when they need to be
  • Use appropriate lightings i.e. a low back ground light while watching television and a right, concentrated light for reading. By having a range of lights in a room with separate switches will make this easier.

 

 

Smappee.. a good investment!

Smappee..  it’s a good Investment!

Buying a Smappee device at 199, EUR including VAT is financially a good investment.  In a previous post, I indicated that the way Smappee provides you insight in your energy usage: real-time feedback with consumption down to the appliance level, will help you save 12% on your energy consumption.

How much savings do I need to pay back my Smappee in 2 years?

Assuming an average energy price of 0,25 EUR per kWh (Day or Night rates, taxes and contributions all together), then a pay back in 2 years will require you to save 100, EUR per year thus reduce your consumption by 400 kWh per year (400 kWh x 0,25 EUR/kWh = 100 EUR).

If this reduction is the result of the 12% savings that can be achieved, how much do we need to consume annually then?  Well 400 kWh * 100 /12 = 3333 kWh per year.  The average Belgian household consumes even more, 3.500 kWh per year. So this should be possible.

Most of us have a higher consumption than the average of 3500 kWh/year!

Most 4-people-households will even consume 5.000 kWh/year and those who really don’t care about their energy footprint, will easily reach 8.000 kWh/year.  And those having a swimming pool, Sauna, Jacuzzi, heat pump will be well above 12.000 kWh/year and generally end up at 20.000 kWh!.  Needless to say how quickly you will pay back your Smappee in such case.

How much return do I get on my Savings account?

Payback in 2 years equals an intrest rate of 50%.  Not just the first two years, but as long as you continue to use Smappee and manage your energy usage footprint. You’ll earn money with it.  Even if you would only be able to save half, still 25% would be achieved.  How much does your Savings account return?

No loss of Comfort!

We understand, that people in general don’t want to lose comfort! I why would we?  So, don’t stop using your sauna, your pool, etc. because you have a Smappee.  Just be aware how much energy they use.  Don’t pre-heat your Sauna hours in advance, that’s it. There is a lot of other useless and wasted energy that you can save on; Standby Power for instance!

400 kWh per year (= pay back 2 years).  Help me me find them?

There are plenty of ways to save energy: replace old, inefficient fridges, shutdown the fridge in the garage that just hold two beers,..

Another easy source of energy savings can be found by looking at the standby consumption of your appliances.  Your TV, Computer, PS console, .. for example. You think they are OFF, but they still consume energy!  Normal, the device must be running in standby mode (lower consumption) to receive that InfraRed command from your remote control in order to turn on the rest of the TV.   Same for the Computer .. a tap on the keyboard wakes it up.   In my case my TV, and Computer each had approximately 30W of standby power!

If you find 50W of standby power that is ON during 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, you’ll have an energy savings potential of:  50W x 24h x 365 days = 438.000 Wh or 438 kWh!  (remember at 0,25 EUR per kWh: 438 kWh x 0,25 = 109,5 EUR per year for 50W always on power!

BubbleScreen

The Bubble screen in the Smappee App shows your actual Consumption (Dark Bubble), your solar or wind production (Green Bubble) and the total Standby Power of all your Appliances in the home (Blue Bubble: 340 W in this screenshot).  The standby power of your home is measured by Smappee and updated every day.  Smappee wants to be sure you effectively reduced the Standby Consumption and will wait 2 days prior to reduce the Blue Bubble value with the amount of Standby Power you have reduced in your home.IMG_0035Smappee will give you an award each time your reduce your Standby Power by 3% and 10%.

How can I find out how much Standby Power this appliance is using?

It’s simple to measure..

Make sure you don’t have to much activity in the house (cleaning, ironing, etc.) and try to have a steady total consumption in the “Dark Bubble”.  The example hereafter shows a value of 1141W as the total power of all your appliances in the house.  This is a real-time power value, updated every 5 seconds.

BubblesPowerChange

Look at the increase (+59W) and decrease (-59W) of the total power in the house as a result of switching an appliance ON and OFF.

In order to measure the standby consumption, it’s not sufficient to press the OFF button of your TV.  As explained previously, it is still taking some power.  So take the power cord out of the outlet as this will really shutdown the TV and plug it back in after eg. 30 seconds.  Repeat a number of times and watch the power increases and decreases above the dark bubble (or subtract the two total power values from each other 1200W – 1141W = 59W).  This will give you the power (or standby power) for this specific appliance, TV,  Computer, PS Console, ..

Standby Power, the “RED switch Power Strip” or Smappee’s Comfort Plug?

OK, we understand that we should unplug the power of certain appliances. We can use the traditional “red switch power strip” or use Smappee’s Comfort Plug.  Read how I reduced the standby power of my multi-room audio amplifier.

I have a multi-room audio system with amplifiers to power 24 by 7 those loudspeakers that are built-in into the ceiling.  The power consumption was 40W! By changing the mode (multizone A or AB, etc) of the Amplifier I could bring down that power to 18W.  That’s a saving of 40 -18 = 22W for ever!  22W * 24 hours * 365 =  192 kWh per year or 48 EUR!

MultizoneAmp

But I could further optimise the consumption of the 18W.  The amplifier is used only a few hours when we’re in the kitchen, listening to the radio, streamed via airplay from our iPad.  This is generally when we have breakfast, as we would rather watch TV in the evening.  Note that the amplifier is not located in the kitchen, so I can’t use the remote control.  We would not want another remote control anyway to turn on that Radio.

imagesI could have used a traditional Red switch Power strip, but that’s not convenient.  I can’t sell that solution to my wife.  (go to the technical room where the amplifier is located ..). Strips with wireless control?  Could work. But more expensive and this means yet another remote control in the kitchen.

control

So I used Smappee’s Comfort Plug.  The plug is wirelessly controlled by Smappee’s built-in Radio Remote Controller. I let Smappee switch OFF the speakers (the amplifier) when nobody is home.  Smappee can detect this based on the level of consumption in the home and the number of appliances that turn on and off (measure of activity).

Smappee’s Inactivity detector:  If Inactivity detected OR consumption under XX then Turn Off Comfort Plug “Radio”) and turn them immediately back on when we need them.IMG_0036

To turn the speakers on when we are in the Kitchen I used the Schedule function, i.e. at 07h in the morning, but it happens that we sleep longer, and inactivity will have turned the speakers OFF again at 08h.

IMG_0037I added the “Expresso” event.  First thing we do at breakfast, is make an Expresso.  I used the Smappee event “Expresso machine ON” to automatically turn ON the plug for a duration of ONE hour. (“If this” condition in Smappee: If Expresso ON then Turn On “Radio” for duration of One hour)in the kitchen (breakfast ..) then the Amplifiers is turned on.

IMG_0044

The “Event Log” screenshot illustrates that the “Radio” switched ON event following the  “Expresso” out (coffee ready in 30 seconds).

Smappee’s Brand Manifesto!

You like having control over your own life. You don ́t want to sacrifice comfort.  You don ́t like wasting your own money – or valuable resources. So it ́s time to deal more consciously with our planet’s natural reserves. It ́s time for a change in behaviour. Naturally without sacrificing comfort. Everyone can do their part by reducing energy consumption. And with smappee, you’ve got everything totally under control. So you don ́t have to dramatically overturn your lifestyle.  Ultimately, it entails just a small gesture. With a big win for yourself, but above all for the environment. Saving on Energy is not only good for your wallet, but also helps our Climate!

Signature-LetsWin

Revolution Justified!

Military reports warn that impending energy problems will endanger Western society and threaten to weaken ties between states and their citizens, undermining the very foundations of democracy and the rule of law. Energy issues will also set the stage for more aggressive geopolitics and will substantially destroy the ecosystem services on which society is wholly dependent. These are but a few of the impacts that the double energy problem of climate change and oil decline have in store for us.

In this illuminating book, attorney and pragmatic visionary Roger Cox sets out and analyses these energy stress tests, going on to explain why neither the market mechanism nor today’s political model are capable of initiating an energy revolution to solve these issues. This deadlock situation has the potential to bring about the very downfall of Western society, as this book explains, and will at the very least put Western countries at risk of committing domestic human rights violations on a scale nobody had thought to ever see again after World War II.

Precisely this threat of human rights violations puts the judiciary in a position to step in and lead Western governments out of the dangerous deadlock. Drawing and expanding on examples and cases from the US, the UK, the Netherlands, Europe and the European Union, this book demonstrates that the West’s legal systems already contain all the elements needed to achieve an energy revolution faster and more effectively then any other alternative.

Source: Roger Cox, Revolution Justified!